本文是case study，主要分析耐克公司的案例。本报告基于耐克讨论可持续发展的情况，讨论可持续发展的三个要素之间的关系，可持续发展的作用，可持续发展的每个要素发挥什么作用，以及每个因素的贡献。 最后，在可持续发展的不同情况下应采取什么样的措施？
Assessment task 2
NIKE: SUSTAINABILITY AND LABOR PRACTICES 1998 - 2013
3.1 sustainability initiatives of Nike
3.2 Relationship between the three elemenrs of sustainability
3.4 Different measures in different environments
This report is based on the case of Nike discuss the sustainability. Nike had realized the importance of sustainable development very early, so the company carried out the strategy of sustainable development. This report discusses some related issues about sustainable development.
The main contents of the report include clarifying Nike companies do what measures in sustainable development, discussing on sustainable development and the relationship between the various elemenrs, analyzing contribute that different factors make and how to implement sustainable development in different environments.
In 1998, Nike executives had found the importance of sustainable development, and then they decided to start the implementation of the strategy of sustainable development. From the company's human resources, production, procurement, and the selection of supplier and the franchisee, and customer marketing are all based on the point of sustainable development.
Then we discuss the relationship between the three elemenrs of sustainable development, focus on how the three elemenrs promote and restrict each other. Now that Nike put the sustainability on the strategy level, so the idea of sustainable development is of great significance, this report here discuss the contribution of sustainable, and what role does each elemenr of sustainable development play, and what contribution dose each elemenr. Last, what kind of measures should be taken in different circumstances for sustainable development?
For sustainable development, Nike implements the following measures:
Participate in FLA. The FLA, a nonprofit that works with companies, universities, and other organizations to improve worker conditions around the world, was an important player in the footwear and apparel industry. It carries out due diligence and independent assessments in Nike contract factories; it also provides training for factory workers and management. Participate in the HR Management program，That progress included: Implementing management training programs and freedom of association education programs; completing surveys using a statistically relevant sampling of employees; and promoting multi-brand collaboration on improving working conditions in the global factory supply chain.
Reduce or eliminate toxic waste materials and increase the use of the advantage of environmental protection materials, put the principles of sustainable development into high performance and innovative products. Using of recycled or organic materials, and control environmental impacts related to material vendors.
Nike cares about the cost, delivery of Manufacturing, and quality. At the same time Nike began selling green products. Producing the Nike Fly knit was significantly more sustainable because new technology allowed Nike to make the upper section of the shoe with less waste,
Sustainable development does not purely approve economic growth but sacrifices the environment capacity and ability, also not in favor of simply in order to keep the environment and do not actively develop the natural resources(Daly,1990). The relationship between the economic and environment can be regulated and controlled of different types of ways, reached the goal that is in the high level of economic development and constantly improve, at the same time correspond to the environment ability to a high level. So, some of the areas construct "circular economy" and "ecological compensation system", "eco-industrial park", "green chemistry system", its fundamental aim is to maintain the coordinated development between man and nature.
Natural resources provide the basis material for economic growth, materials needed for human life, industrial production, both come from natural renewable resources or non renewable resources, so natural resources are the guarantee of human production and reproduction. Second, the use of natural resources can promote technical progress. in the adjustment of market mechanism, people have not been satisfied with the original mining for the raw materials, but to the fine processing development, which requires the support of technological progress and the degree of utilization of natural resources is higher, reducing its dependence. Then, the social labor productivity is affected by the natural resource abundance; it reflects the relationship between man and nature. Labor productivity depends not only on the human capital, but also depends on the conditions of natural resources.
Sustainable development relates to the economy, population, resources and environment and other factors, these factors have formed different system, so the sustainable development can be regarded as a state of motion and the overall trend of a complex system. Different context has different measures.
In some ecological sensitive areas, sustainable development can be regarded as a state or tendency of the coordinated development of resources system, environment system, economy system and population system, but compared with other regions, resources and environment system of ecological sensitive area is more vulnerable(Barbier, 1989). Therefore, when discuses the sustainable development of economy of such area, the relationship of their interaction between the of population system, resource system, environment system and economic system cannot be separated in the region. What is more, because of the sensitive of a ecological areas, it is easier to be impacted by human action, if it is it will be difficult to recover. Ecological sensitive area has abundant ecological function; it can improve the ecological environment in the region, provide living space and maintain species diversity for wild animal. At the same time, it can provide a rich social and economic function for the production of human life, for example, provide consumer leisure resort for city people, provides a wealth of eco- agricultural products for a regional, control urban diseases, coordination of regional economic and social development(Goldin, 1995).
Nike is fully aware of the importance of sustainable development, and successfully implemented some strategies of sustainable development. The three factors of sustainable development restrict each other and promote each other, under the reasonable planning and implementation each factor will make the corresponding contribution. Natural resources are the guarantee of human production and reproduction; sustainable development can promote the technological innovation of enterprises; sustainable development regards the environment construction as an important content to realize the development. A country or an organization should formulate different policy of economic development, promote the coordinated development of economy, and strengthen the human resources exchange dynamics in different context. In different context, different strategy should be implemented, so as to be more efficient.
Barbier, E. 1989, Economics, natural-resource scarcity and development: conventional and alternative views, Earthscan, London.
Castañeda, B.E. 1999, "An index of sustainable economic welfare (ISEW) for Chile", Ecological Economics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 231-244.
Daly, HE, 1990, 'Toward some operational principles of sustainable development', Ecological Economics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-6.
Goldin, Land Winters, 1995,A. Economic policies for sustainable development. The economics of sustainable development. Cambridge University Press, vol.2.
Holub, H.W., Tappeiner, G. & Tappeiner, U. 1999, "Some remarks on the "System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting" of the United Nations", Ecological Economics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 329-336.
England, R.W. 2000, "Natural capital and the Theroy of economic growth", Ecological Economics, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 425-431.
William A.Brok M. Scott Taylar, J 2003, The Kindergarten Rule for Sustainable Growth. NBER Working Paper No. w9597,4.
William A. Brok M. Scott Taylar, J 2004, Economic Growth and the Environment: A Review of Theroy and Empirics. Department of Economics Discussion, vol.14 pp.36-43.